Abstract Uveal autoantigen with coiled coil domains and ankyrin repeats (UACA) is an autoantigen in patients with panuveitis such as Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease. The prevalence of IgG anti-UACA antibodies in patients with uveitis is significantly higher than healthy controls, suggesting its potential role as an autoantigen. Originally, UACA was cloned from dog thyroid tissue following TSH stimulation. So, we presumed UACA could be a novel autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases. We measured serum anti-UACA antibody titer using ELISA in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, and silent thyroiditis). The prevalence of anti-UACA antibodies in Graves’ disease group was significantly higher than that in healthy group (15% vs. 0%). Moreover, the prevalence of anti-UACA antibodies in Graves’ ophthalmopathy was significantly higher than that in Graves’ patients without ophthalmopathy (29% vs. 11%). Especially, 75% of severe ocular myopathy cases showed high UACA titer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that UACA protein is expressed in eye muscles as well as human thyroid follicular cells. Taken together, UACA is a novel candidate for eye muscle autoantigens in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.