Abstract Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a huge hardship for parents, but also for health professionals. In 2007, 210 cases occurred in France, corresponding to a crude rate of 31.8 for 100,000 births. Between 1994 and 2007, 140 children of less than 2 years old were examined in the reference centre for SIDS in Rennes, France. We included in our study the children who were aged more than 28 days at death date, did not have a known lethal disease and were autopsied. A total of 80 children fulfilled those criteria. Post-mortem investigation included an autopsy, clinical and paraclinical exams (blood test, radiography, CT-scan…), and investigation of the circumstances of the death. Most of the cases were boys and were 2- to 5-month old. Ventral decubitus and gastrointestinal symptoms were often present. Autopsy gave elements about the causes of death in 23 cases and the other exams performed frequently showed an infectious viral context. Thanks to prevention and information campaigns about childcare done in the 1990s, SIDS incidence has largely decreased in France, but it is still too frequent. In our opinion, advices need to be given again and again, especially concerning safe sleep practices, in order to increase adherence to these recommendations. Moreover, research should be continued to better understand this unexplained syndrome.