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Genotoxicity and toxicity assessment in urban hydrographic basins

Authors
Journal
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
1383-5718
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
603
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2005.11.011
Keywords
  • Salmonella/Microsome Assay
  • Micronucleus Test In V79
  • Chronic Toxicity Usingdaphnia Magna
  • Water Samples
  • Sediment Samples
  • Organic Compounds
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Earth Science
  • Geography
  • Medicine

Abstract

Abstract The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of water in small urban basins was evaluated by the Salmonella/microsome assay and micronucleus test in V79 cells. The results showed that the cytotoxic effect was the most significant response in areas with medium to heavy urban occupation for both assays evaluated. Water samples from these areas include different concentrations of chloroform, bromodichloromethane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. As to genotoxic damage, the presence of mainly direct-acting frameshift mutagens was detected in areas with less urban concentration and showed genotoxic activity in V79 cells in more heavily urbanized areas. Water organic extracts, evaluated using a microsuspension procedure, showed frameshift mutagenic activity in the presence of hepatic metabolization that increased as the population density grow. Chronic toxicity studies of sediment samples with the microcrustacean Daphnia magna showed that, while survival was not highly affected, reproductive inhibition was found in 92% of the observations. A retrospective diagnosis of water quality using traditional physicochemical parameters that defined the differential contribution of urban wastes at the three sites was associated with the biological assays. It became clear that the biological assays were of significant benefit in the diagnosis of risks of contamination of hydrographic basins by pollutants from urban non-point sources.

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