Abstract There is a complexity for understanding the physiological and psychological components of pain. Pain is normally first activated in the periphery and transmitted to the central nervous system. Each fiber type of nerves is specific for each particular kind of nociceptive response and has different neurotransmitters as transmitter vehicles, as are different neural channels involved in the transduction and transmission process. The afferented pain reaches the spinal cord areas located in the dorsal horn. Via the ascending system, the pain reaches the structures of the thalamus and the primary and secondary brain cortex. There is an individual variation of the aspects of pain, as well as differences due to the influence of age and gender. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods have been discovered in order to provide better solutions for the amelioration of pain.