Chile and New Zealand share a common stock of 181 species of mosses in 94 genera and 34 families. This number counts for 23.3% of the Chilean and 34.6% of the New Zealand moss flora. If only species with austral distribution are taken into account, the number is reduced to 113 species in common, which is 14.5% of the Chilean and 21.6% of the New Zealand moss flora. This correlation is interpreted in terms of long distance dispersal resp. the common phytogeographical background of both countries as parts of the palaoaustral floristic region and compared with disjunct moss floras of other continents as well as the presently available molecular data.