Abstract With the increasing number of transplantable organs and tissues, as well as improvements in transplantation results, has come a severe shortage of organ donors. Organs for transplantation are usually obtained from living genetically related donors or from heart-beating cadavers. Unfortunately, these sources have so far been unable to keep up with demand. As a result, there is a large and steadily increasing number of potential recipients awaiting transplantation, some of who will die before an organ can be found. These trends have raised many ethical, moral, societal and in particular religious (Islamic Law) issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation, and use of living donors. Several ethical dilemmas regarding case selection, allocation within the law, medical problems, and economic sources have now to be confronted. Despite this, the legal framework regulating transplantation in Iran was recently enhanced in comparison to other Islamic countries.