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Chemical geothermometry and fluid–mineral equilibria for the Ömer–Gecek thermal waters, Afyon area, Turkey

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/s0377-0273(97)00051-6
  • Geothermometry
  • Thermal Waters
  • Ömer-Gecek Geothermal Field
  • Fluid–Mineral Equilibrium
  • Chemistry
  • Earth Science


Abstract Thermal waters of the Ömer–Gecek geothermal field, Turkey, with temperatures ranging from 32 to 92°C vary in chemical composition and TDS contents. They are generally enriched in Na–Cl–HCO 3 and suggest deep water circulation. Silica and cation geothermometers applied to the Ömer–Gecek thermal waters yield reservoir temperatures of 75–155°C. The enthalpy–chloride mixing model, which approximates a reservoir temperature of 125°C for the Ömer–Gecek field, accounts for the diversity in the chemical composition and temperature of the waters by a combination of processes including boiling and conductive cooling of deep thermal water and mixing of the deep thermal water with cold water. It is also determined that the solubility of silica in most of the waters is controlled by the chalcedony phase. Equilibrium states of the Ömer–Gecek thermal waters studied by means of the Na–K–Mg triangular diagram, Na–K–Mg–Ca diagram, K–Mg–Ca geoindicator diagram, activity diagrams in the systems composed of Na 2O–CaO–K 2O–Al 2O 3–SiO 2–CO 2–H 2O phases, log SI diagrams, and finally the alteration mineralogy indicate that most of the spring and low-temperature well waters in the area can be classified as shallow or mixed waters which are likely to be equilibrated with calcite, chalcedony and kaolinite at predicted temperature ranges similar to those calculated from the chemical geothermometers. It was also observed that mineral equilibrium in the Ömer–Gecek waters is largely controlled by CO 2 concentrations.

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