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Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for treatment of intraocular proliferative, exudative, and neovascular diseases

Authors
Publisher
Elsevier Ltd
Publication Date
Volume
24
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2005.01.004
Disciplines
  • Medicine

Abstract

Abstract Within the last three years, triamcinolone acetonide has increasingly been applied intravitreally as treatment option for various intraocular neovascular edematous and proliferative disorders. The best response in terms of gain in visual acuity after the intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide was found in eyes with intraretinal edematous diseases such as diffuse diabetic macular edema, branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, and pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. Visual acuity increased and degree of intraocular inflammation decreased in eyes with various types of non-infectious uveitis including acute or chronic sympathetic ophthalmia and Adamantiadis–Behcet's disease. Intravitreal triamcinolone may be useful as angiostatic therapy in eyes with iris neovascularization and proliferative ischemic retinopathies. Possibly, intravitreal triamcinolone may be helpful as adjunct therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration, possibly in combination with photodynamic therapy. In eyes with chronic, therapy resistant, ocular hypotony, intravitreal triamcinolone can induce an increase in intraocular pressure and may stabilize the eye. The complications of intravitreal triamcinolone therapy include secondary ocular hypertension in about 40% of the eyes injected, cataractogenesis, postoperative infectious and non-infectious endophthalmitis, and pseudo-endophthalmitis. Intravitreal triamcinolone injection can be combined with other intraocular surgeries including cataract surgery. Cataract surgery performed some months after the injection does not show a markedly elevated rate of complications. If vision increases and eventually decreases again after an intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection, the injection can be repeated. The duration of the effect of a single intravitreal injection of triamcinolone depended on the dosage given. Given in a dosage of about 20 mg to non-vitrectomized eyes, the duration of the effect and of the side-effects was 6–9 months. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide may offer a possibility for adjunctive treatment of intraocular edematous and neovascular disorders. One has to take into account the side-effects and the lack of long-term follow-up observations.

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