This investigation, undertaken with an archaeological gaze, discusses some theoretical and methodological aspects of the ethnoarchaeological approach. This article intends, beyond simple analogy, to contribute to the archaeological interpretation of prehistoric societies of the South American lowlands. It offers information on the production and use of pottery by the Mati, obtained at the shores of the Itui River in the year 2000. The analysis illustrates social relations connected to techno-logy and to the production of a lowland village material record. Keywords: Mati Ethnoarchaeology, pottery, Amazonian archaeology.