Abstract Cattle infested with the common cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum (Villers) develop specific humoral antibodies and a cellular immune reaction, defined by delayed-type hypersensitivity, to purified H. lineatum proteins. This investigation was designed to study the antigen-specific bovine lymphocyte response to hypodermin A (HyA), a serine protease of larval first-instar H. lineatum. Calves were vaccinated with either native or denatured HyA, and challenge-infested with H. lineatum. The kinetic development of a cellular immune response to HyA was monitored during vaccination and infestation. The HyA-specific responses were highly variable and weak during vaccination and infestation. Although HyA-specific lymphocyte blastogenic responses were observed, no correlation was noted between the magnitude of antigen-specific, peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and larval mortality. In striking contrast to responses observed during infestation, intense HyA-specific lymphocyte responses were observed with 3 calves 6 months after recovery from infestation. In addition, those responses were further heightened by a 250 μg booster injection of pure HyA.