Previously, only one ribosome protection type of a tetracycline resistance gene, tetQ, had been identified in Bacteroides spp. During an investigation of anaerobic bacteria present in swine feces and manure storage pits, a tetracycline-resistant Bacteroides strain was isolated. Subsequent analysis showed that this new Bacteroides strain, Bacteroides sp. strain 139, did not contain tetQ but contained a previously unidentified tetracycline resistance gene. Sequence analysis showed that the tetracycline resistance gene from Bacteroides sp. strain 139 encoded a protein (designated Tet 36) that defines a new class of ribosome protection types of tetracycline resistance. Tet 36 has 60% amino acid identity over 640 aa to TetQ and between 31 and 49% amino acid identity to the nine other ribosome protection types of tetracycline resistance genes. The tet(36) region was not observed to transfer from Bacteroides sp. strain 139 to another Bacteroides sp. under laboratory conditions. Yet tet(36) was found in other genera of bacteria isolated from the same swine manure pits and from swine feces. Phylogenetic analysis of the tet(36)-containing isolates indicated that tet(36) was present not only in the Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroides group to which Bacteroides sp. strain 139 belongs but also in gram-positive genera and gram-negative proteobacteria, indicating that horizontal transfer of tet(36) is occurring between these divergent phylogenetic groups in the farm environment.