Abstract The least-altered, Permian mafic volcanic rocks from the Pang Mayao area, Phrao District, Chiang Mai Province, part of Chiang Rai–Chiang Mai volcanic belt, have been analyzed and are found to be mid-ocean ridge and ocean–island basalts. The mid-ocean ridge basalts occur as lava flows or dike rocks. They are equigranular, fine- to medium-grained and consist largely of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine. These basalt samples are tholeiitic, and have compositions very similar to T-MORB from the region where the Du Toit Fracture Zone intersects the Southwest Indian Ridge. The ocean–island basalt occurs as pillow breccia, and lava flows or dike rocks. They are slightly to moderately porphyritic, with phenocrysts/microphenocrysts of clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and/or Fe–Ti oxide. The groundmass is very fine-grained, and made up largely of felty plagioclase laths with subordinate clinopyroxene. These basalt samples are alkalic, and chemically analogous to those from Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Chain. These mafic volcanic rocks may have been formed in a major ocean basin rather than in a mature back-arc basin.