Abstract A prevalence study was designed to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the soil of 37 dairy farms in southeastern New York state. A sampling design was developed and used to collect soil samples from these farms. Areas on the farms which were considered to be potential sources of contamination to the environment were evaluated quantitatively using a multidimensional scale. This scale included factors which could have the potential to contribute to the risk of contamination of the environment with Giardia or Cryptosporidium. In addition, the runoff pathway from these areas was identified and sampling points along that pathway were determined. Using a sampling grid, sampling sites were determined and soil samples collected and analyzed individually for the following: presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, pH, gravimetric moisture content, and volumetric moisture content. Out of 782 soil samples, 17% were positive for Cryptosporidium and 4% were positive for Giardia. The pH of the soil ranged from 3.7 to 9.8 with a mean of 7.0. There was a significant association between the pH and the likelihood of detecting Cryptosporidium spp. As the pH increased, the likelihood of detecting an oocyst decreased. Gravimetric moisture content had a mean of 40% and a range from 7 to 86%. There was a significant association between the gravimetric moisture content and the likelihood of detecting Giardia in soil samples.