The distribution of fibronectin in situ in the sea urchin embryo was examined by using indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody raised against human plasma fibronectin. Fibronectin was detected on the surfaces of primary mesenchyme cells in the mid-mesenchyme blastula stage, when these cells are migratory. However, it was not detected on these cells at the early mesenchyme blastula or early gastrula stages. Also, it was not detected in the blastocoel nor on the basal surface of the blastular wall. The migration of the primary mesenchyme cells is therefore correlated with a stage-dependent occurrence of cell surface-associated fibronectin.