Histone and DNA syntheses have been studied in synchronously dividing Tetrahymena pyriformis GL. During the heat treatment necessary to synchronize cultures of this amicronucleate protozoan, the DNA content of the already polyploid macronucleus increases. When the cells begin synchronous division, their DNA content is reduced in a stepwise process which is closely paralleled by reduction of macronuclear histone content. During cell division, the contents of DNA and histone decrease by slightly more than twofold, and in the subsequent S phase, DNA and histone increase simultaneously to 85% of the values expected if all chromosomes were to double. The first step in the process of reduction of DNA and histone contents is their decrease in excess of twofold, and this is accomplished by removal of extrusion bodies from the nuclei of dividing cells. The second step is a mechanism which allows, in effect, only 70% of the chromatin in the average nucleus to duplicate. Such partial duplication suggests that both histone and DNA syntheses in synchronous Tetrahymena depend upon a regulatory mechanism, the mediating elements of which are localized in only certain chromosomes.