Abstract The main purpose of our study was to identify the social circumstances and lifestyle of IDDM patients in Japan. The present study focused on the marriage status of both men and women with IDDM as well as the number of children of women with IDDM. A questionnaire was sent to hospitals across the country. Doctors handed it or mailed it to IDDM patients aged 18 years or older. Unsigned answer sheets were returned directly by the patients. Data on the marriage rate and number of children were obtained, and possible factors affecting these indices were assessed. One thousand and thirteen patients (354 men and 659 women) answered the questionnaire. Both men and women with IDDM were less likely to be married in comparison with age-matched Japanese. The number of children of married IDDM women in various age groups was also lower in comparison with the general Japanese female population. Several factors other than diabetes complications including job discrimination, high medical costs, and psychological pressures, were thought to be responsible for these results.