Abstract Previously, it has been suggested that uteroglobin (UG)-binding protein functions as a putative receptor of UG; however, the specific epitope of UG that interacts with this receptor has not yet been identified. The downstream events of UG-binding protein signaling remain unclear. Here we report that antiflammin-1 (AF-1, a bioactive C-terminal peptide of UG) specifically binds to UG-binding protein and has a cellular signaling consequence. We reduced the level of endogenous UG-binding protein expression in murine fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 by RNA interference and found that knockdown of UG-binding protein inhibited AF-1-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Meanwhile, the interaction between AF-1 and UG-binding protein was confirmed by flow cytometry-based binding assays and co-localization of AF-1 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged UG-binding protein. The present study provides evidence for the first time for AF-1 binding with UG-binding protein, and preliminarily characterized UG-binding protein as a point downstream of AF-1 in mediating ERK phosphorylation.