Abstract A new high-birefringence (Hi-Bi) fiber torsion sensor demodulated by a Hi-Bi fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed in this study. The twisted Hi-Bi fiber sensor characteristics are analyzed using the Jones matrix. The intensity ratio from two reflected Bragg wavelengths is associated with the twist angle of the measured Hi-Bi fiber. It is found that the twist angle resolution is estimated at around 0.3° under ±0.1 dB readout from an optical spectrum analyzer if the polarization state of the light source is stable. The advantages of this new torsion sensor are: (1) insensitivity to intensity variations from the light source, (2) insensitivity to the torsion gauge length, and (3) absolute measurement in the twist angle. However, the polarization state of light in the proposed method needs to be controlled, and any birefringence change in the twisted Hi-Bi fiber needs to be prevented.