Abstract From a transplantable mouse teratoma it has been possible to derive an established keratinizing cell line (XB) which grows well in cultures containing lethally irradiated 3T3 fibroblasts at the correct density. Single cells of the keratinizing line grow into colonies each consisting of a stratified squamous epithelium. The keratinizing nature of the colonies has been demonstrated by specific staining with Rhodanile blue, and by light and electron microscopy of sections through the colonies. A function of fibroblasts appears to be a strict requirement for keratinization and an important though less strict requirement for cell growth. The fibroblast function can be carried out by medium harvested from 3T3 cultures. It is possible to detect keratinizing colonies in primary cultures of disaggregated teratoma cells combined with 3T3 cells. Such colonies appeared in cultures of a transplantable teratoma with an overall frequency of 6 × 10 −6 of the cells plated. Nonkeratinizing colonies of cells with otherwise very similar appearance were about 10 fold more abundant. Since both the keratinizing and the related nonkeratinizing colonies can be identified in the living state, it is possible to isolate them from the primary cultures.