Abstract Objective To describe the process for inducing atherogenic lesions in rabbits, to show the damage to vessels caused by two different caliber balloon catheters, and to show the usefulness of ultrasonography in the quantification of vascular damage. Material and methods We used 36 rabbits. We studied the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and examined the aorta and iliac arteries by ultrasonography. We performed arteriography and induced a vascular lesion by denuding the left iliac artery with a balloon catheter: group A 2.5mm diameter balloon catheter, group B 3mm diameter balloon catheter. After 8 weeks on a hyperlipidic diet, biochemical and ultrasonographic measurements were repeated. Results Cholesterol before the diet: 37.96±19.3mg/dL and after the diet: 1761±296.91mg/dL. The baseline ultrasonographic measurements of vessel diameter were: aorta 4.1±0.7mm, right iliac artery 3±0.3mm, left iliac artery 3±0.4mm. After vascular damage and 8 weeks hyperlipidic diet, in group A the ultrasonographic measurements of vessel diameter were: aortic lumen 2.78±1.21mm, right iliac artery 2.18±0.81mm, and the left iliac artery 1.16±0.63mm; in group B, the aortic lumen measured 3.07±1.06mm, the right iliac artery 2.53±0.9mm, and the left iliac artery 1.39±1.1 mm. Four rabbits died; in the 32 remaining rabbits, morbidity was higher with a 3mm balloon catheter. Conclusion After denudation with a balloon catheter and a hyperlipidic diet, the rabbits developed arterial stenosis. The damage with a 2.5mm diameter catheter reduces complications.