Abstract The effects of treatment with fenfluramine or electrolytic lesions in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) on binding of guanosine 5-diphosphate (GDP) by mitochondria from brown adipose tissue have been compared in 4 experiments. In 2 experiments the lesions were lateral to the anterior hypothalamic nucleus and in the other two they were lateral to the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Binding of GDP to mitochondria was significantly increased 18 hours after an electrolytic lesion in either LH site. d,1-Fenfluramine, 20 mg/kg, also increased GDP binding in both acute experiments. In the other 2 experiments GDP binding was measured 11 days after the LH lesion or after 11 daily injections of fenfluramine. When the chronic lesions were lateral to the VMN, there was a transient drop in food intake and body weight. With more anterior lesions, body weight remained significantly lower than in sham-operated rats although food intake returned slowly to control levels. Fenfluramine-treated rats had lower body weights in both chronic experiments even after food intake returned to normal. GDP-binding to mitochondria from interscapular brown adipose tissue was elevated in both of the chronically-treated fenfluramine groups but was only increased in the LH-lesioned rats whose body weight remained below normal.