Abstract Adult male Long Evans were selected as ethanol preferring rats (DR) during 28 days. After this period, they were daily IP injected during 14 days with one of the next drugs: diazepam 1 mg·kg −1, alprazolam 1 mg·kg −1 (benzodiazepines), progabide 25 mg·kg −1 (GABA A and B agonist), nipecotic acid 150 mg·kg −1 (GABA uptake inhibitor), muscimol 0.2 mg·kg −1 (GABA A agonist), AOAA 10 mg·kg −1 (GABA decarboxylase inhibitor), baclofen 3 mg·kg −1 (GABA B agonist), or NaCl 0.9% (1 ml/200 g). During treatments, rats were isolated, had free access to food, and free choice between ethanol (12%) and water whose respective consumption were daily noted. Among treatments, only AOAA and baclofen were able to decrease significantly ethanol intake, without modifying total liquid intake. The action of these different drugs on GABA transmission and on ethanol intake was discussed. It was concluded that GABA A and benzodiazepine receptors were not implicated in ethanol intake, but that modulation of voluntary ethanol intake could be associated with a modification of GABA metabolism and/or stimulation of GABA B receptors. An intervention of GABA B receptors on noradrenergic pathways was also evoked.