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The angiogenic behaviors of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in co-culture with osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) on different titanium surfaces

Dental Materials
DOI: 10.1016/
  • Dental Implants
  • Co-Culture
  • Endothelial Cells
  • Osteoblasts
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Titanium Surface
  • Surface Modification
  • Surface Roughness
  • Surface Hydrophilicity
  • Angiogenesis
  • Biology


Abstract Objectives Interaction between osteogenesis and angiogenesis plays an important role in implant osseointegration. In the present study we investigated the influence of titanium surface properties on the angiogenic behaviors of endothelial cells grown in direct contact co-culture with osteoblasts. Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 cells) were grown in direct co-culture on the following titanium surfaces: acid-etched (A), hydrophilic A (modA), coarse-gritblasted and acid-etched (SLA) and hydrophilic SLA (SLActive). Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting combined with flow cytometry. The expression of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), thrombomodulin (TM), endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), E-Selectin, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors Flt-1 and KDR in HUVECs and VEGF in MG-63 were measured by qPCR. The dynamic behavior of endothelial cells was recorded by time-lapse microscopy. Results Proliferation of HUVECs was highest on A, followed by SLA, modA and SLActive surfaces. The expression of vWF, TM, EPCR, E-Selectin and Flt-1 in HUVECs was significantly higher on A than on all other surfaces. The expression of KDR in HUVECs grown on A surface was below detection limit. VEGF expression in MG-63 cells was significantly higher on SLActive vs SLA and modA vs A surfaces. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that HUVECs moved quickest and formed cell clusters earlier on A surface, followed by SLA, modA and SLActive surface. Conclusions In co-culture conditions, proliferation and expression of angiogenesis associated genes in HUVECs are promoted by smooth hydrophobic Ti surface, which is in contrast to previous mono-culture studies.

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