Food security is a broad concept, encompassing issues related to the nature, quality, and security of the food supply as well as issues of food access. The world has been facing a paradox of widespread food insecurity and malnutrition amid net food surpluses. Increased food supplies do not automatically enhance access to food by the poorer groups of society. Food security measures alone may have a limited effect on the nutritional well being of individuals, unless the reinforcing detrimental linkages between food insecurity, disease, poor sanitation and inadequate education are addressed. Current theory holds that good nutrition for pre-schoolers depends on household food security, an adequate health environment, and adequate maternal and childcare. Pakistan is a low-income developing country with a per capita income of US$443, one of the lowest in the world. Pakistan is not a food insecure country. It generally has the economic ability to import the required food. This paper considers the main features of determinants of food security in Pakistan, particularly household economy assessment, and looks at what conclusions can realistically be drawn out of analysis when conducted within a conceptual framework.