Abstract Microspore culture is not only a valuable system for the study of developmental plant biology, but can also be effectively exploited for biotechnological purposes. Microspore culture is an established platform for the production of large numbers of doubled haploid plants in a few crop species. The unique characteristics of this haploid cell and the rapid advancement of genome sequencing technology make the microspore a special target for genetic engineering. DNA and/or protein delivery into these cells has been studied during the past 25 years with mitigated success, and was often limited to daughter cells. A novel delivery method using short peptide nanocarriers has rendered microspore transformation more achievable and opened new opportunities for crop development.