Abstract Complete nuclear 18S rDNA sequences from 14 species of the Prolecithophora were obtained and used, in combination with literature data, to generate the first parsimony-based hypothesis of the phylogeny of the order Prolecithophora (Platyhelminthes). Bootstrap, parsimony jack-knife, and Bremer support values were computed and compared. The monophyly of the Prolecithophora sensu stricto and the family Plagiostomidae is strongly supported. The taxa Separata, Combinata, and Plagiostomum are shown to be nonmonophyletic. Cylindrostomidae and Ulianinidae are transferred to Pseudostomidae. The Urastomidae is not part of the Prolecithophora.