Purpose We reviewed the current state of knowledge about urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes from the clinical and basic science perspectives. We identified key knowledge gaps and areas for further research. Materials and Methods We performed a focused literature search on certain topics, including clinical studies related to etiology and pathophysiology of urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes, urinary tract infection studies in animal models of diabetes and basic science studies of the molecular mechanisms of urinary tract infection. Results Individuals with diabetes are at higher risk for urinary tract infection. Increased susceptibility in patients with diabetes is positively associated with increased duration and severity of diabetes. Clinical epidemiological data identifying mechanisms of increased urinary tract infection susceptibility in patients with diabetes are generally lacking and indicate only that urinary tract infections in women with and without diabetes are qualitatively similar in bacterial etiology and morbid sequelae. Existing animal models for diabetes have not been well characterized for urinary tract infection research. The increased incidence, prevalence and severity of urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes argue for aggressive antibacterial chemotherapy but novel therapies resulting from urinary tract infection research in nondiabetic animal models are still not available. Conclusions Future clinical investigations of urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes should focus on how the disease differs from that in patients without diabetes, notably on the role of glycosuria and urinary tract infection risk. Basic science research priorities for urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes should emphasize further development of diabetic animal models for urinary tract infection research and clinical translation of known important virulence determinants into new therapies.