Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate mid-term results of endovascular treatment of penetrating aortic ulcers. Methods Between February 2000 and November 2006, 18 consecutive patients underwent endovascular treatment of the descending thoracic aorta ( N = 16) and abdominal infrarenal aorta ( N = 2) for penetrating aortic ulcer, in a single University Hospital. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Mean follow-up was 41 months (range 4 to 77 months). Results Technical success was achieved in all patients. No perioperative deaths occurred. No conversion to open repair or secondary procedures were required. Two patients died in the follow-up period for reasons not related to penetrating aortic ulcers. One type II endoleak was observed. It was still present, unchanged, twelve months after the procedure. Conclusion Endovascular treatment of penetrating aortic ulcers of the descending thoracic and infrarenal aorta were safe and effective in the mid-term in this small series of patients.