Abstract The notions of passivity and positive realness are fundamental concepts in classical control theory, but the use of the terms has varied. For LTI systems, these two concepts capture the same essential property of dynamical systems, that is, a system with this property does not generate its own energy but only stores and dissipates energy supplied by the environment. This paper summarizes the connection between these two concepts for continuous and discrete time LTI systems. Beyond that, relationships are provided between classes of strictly passive systems and classes of positive real systems. The more general framework of dissipativity is introduced to connect passivity and positive realness and also to survey other energy-based results. The frameworks of passivity indices and conic systems are discussed to connect to passivity and dissipativity. After surveying relevant existing results, some clarifying results are presented. These involve connections between classes of passive systems and finite-gain L2 stability as well as asymptotic stability. Additional results are given to clarify some of the more subtle conditions between classes of these systems and stability results. This paper surveys existing connections between classes of passive and positive real systems and provides results that clarify more subtle connections between these concepts.