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Overview of phosphorus diffusion and gettering in multicrystalline silicon

Authors
Journal
Materials Science and Engineering B
0921-5107
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.mseb.2008.10.060
Keywords
  • Solar Cells
  • Silicon
  • Phosphorus
  • Diffusion

Abstract

Abstract This paper gives an overview of phosphorus emitter diffusion and gettering as experienced in multicrystalline silicon solar cell processing. The paper gives a brief summary of the diffusion properties of phosphorus in silicon, explaining the nature behind the characteristic kink-and-tail profiles often encountered in silicon solar cells. Then, phosphorus diffusion gettering is discussed with particular focus to the inhomogeneous nature of multicrystalline silicon, and it is discussed how the abundant presence of dislocations in the areas of the material having a low recombination lifetime can cause only minor lifetime enhancements in such areas upon phosphorus diffusion. Attributed to dissociation of precipitated impurities in combination with longer effective diffusion lengths of the impurities, it is then seen that even poor areas of multicrystalline can exhibit a noticeable improvement by phosphorus diffusion gettering when applying a lower diffusion temperature for a longer duration.

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