Abstract A model capable of characterizing oxidation-assisted low-cycle fatigue is described. It involves the following steps. After a few strain cycles, because of creep, a tensile stress develops during the de-straining phase of the cycle. This stress opens cracks present in the material and exposes the surfaces to the atmosphere, causing thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth. Dilatation takes place upon converting the alloy to oxide, with an associated strain rate that induces a compressive growth stress. Thereafter, during the re-straining phase of the cycle, transverse extension of the substrate induces in-plane tension in the TGO, which “pushes” the TGO into the substrate along the crack front. Finite element simulations of this process have been presented that predict crack growth per cycle, da/ dN, comparable with experimental measurements. Trends in da/ dN with the TGO dilatation rate and the creep strength of the superalloy have been elucidated.