Publisher Summary This chapter discusses manufacturing and the need to do it efficiently and with minimum waste. A better understanding of its potential may show that manufacturing businesses, including their competitive practices, are at the core of improving the chances of survival on this planet for a little longer. It also deals with matching competitive practices with resources efficient manufacturing. The Industrial Revolution marked the beginning of a society where manufacturing was integrated into other aspects of life. The same movement took place in other countries during the following centuries, but the discussion is limited to the major shifts that took place in England, as they are representative of later events in other countries. Today craft manufacturing in industrialized countries is not large in terms of revenues, but revenue only measures dollars of output, not value. The need to look after the world in which one lives is also something that could change the manufacturing processes of the future. Environmental awareness is becoming a large facet of today's society. The manufacturing industry has tools at its disposal that it can use to improve the odds of sustainable development in the face of environmental challenges, although these tools might be considered mysterious and complex.