To Procreate or to Adopt: Two Competing Views of Kinship in the Peninsular MalaysOn the basis of ethnographic data collected in 1985 and 1987 amongst Peninsular Malays practising child adoption and fosterage, the author highlights the double ambivalence that characterizes kinship relations in this Islamic and cognatic society. Mother and father figures, and the roles attached to them, are alternatively glorified during personal development. Sometimes biological ties are emphasized to the exclusion of all other ties. Sometimes adoptive ties are given greater weight. In cases of adoption, each relationship must be examined independently : that of ego with his/her mothers, that of ego with his/her fathers, that of ego with both sibling groups. One genealogical position appears to be of particular importance, that of the maternal grandmother who either benefits from or controls the transfer of children.