Summary The surgical treatment of Parkinson’s disease has been through a revival phase over the last 20 years with the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Thalamic DBS was developed first and has proven to be a very effective treatment for tremor. The limitation is the lack of effect on other symptoms. Other targets were therefore investigated, and the procedure was applied to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the internal globus pallidus (GPi). STN stimulation can improve a wide range of symptoms and is currently the preferred target for many patients. Nevertheless, the morbidity seems higher than with other targets, and the selection criteria have to be quite strict. When STN DBS is not advised, thalamic DBS remains an option for patients with severe tremor, and GPi stimulation for those with severe dyskinesias. DBS remains a symptomatic treatment for a limited number of patients; it does not seem to alter the disease progression, and many patients are not suitable. There is, therefore, the need for further research into other targets and other approaches.