Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental mechanism in tissue and cell homeostasis. It was long suggested that apoptosis regulates the cell number in diverse cell populations; however no clear mechanism was shown. Neutrophils are the short-lived, first-line defense of innate immunity, with an estimated t = 1/2 of 8 hours and a high turnover rate. Here we first show that spontaneous neutrophil constitutive PCD is regulated by cell concentrations. Using a proteomic approach, we identified the S100 A8/9 complex, which constitutes roughly 40% of cytosolic protein in neutrophils, as mediating this effect. We further demonstrate that it regulates cell survival via a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK via TLR4 and CD11B/CD18. This mechanism is suggested to have a fine-tuning role in regulating the neutrophil number in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and inflammatory sites.