Abstract The interplay of geodynamic and sedimentation processes in the Central Asian orogen and the Siberian craton is discussed in several aspects: (i) general tectonics of the Central Asian orogen, (ii) correlation of deposition and collision events, (iii) deposition history and sediment sources on the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian craton, compared, and (iv) history of the Central Asian orogen (Altaids) and formation of Early Mesozoic sedimentary basins. Chemical and isotope compositions and geochronology of Neoproterozoic–Paleozoic sedimentary sequences indicate deposition synchronicity in basins of different types, within both the craton and the orogen. Thus geodynamic models of deposition in separate basins provide reliable evidence of the history of orogens flanking the Siberian craton. The study has confirmed the existence of the Vendian–Early Paleozoic Charysh–Terekta–Ulagan–Sayan–Olkhon strike-slip suture between the continental-margin complexes of Siberia and Kazakhstan, with the crust of juvenile and mixed types, respectively. Late Paleozoic large-scale strike-slip faulting deformed the previous tectonic framework and caused tectonic mixing of the older structures on different margins. This superposed deformation makes it difficult to decipher the paleogeography, paleotectonics, and paleogeodynamics of the Central Asian orogen.