Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) is an irrational fear of being observed and judged by other people in various social settings. The individual is afraid that he or she will act in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing. It is often a chronic, disabling condition that is characterized by a phobic avoidance of most social situations. Social anxiety disorder is the most frequent anxiety disorder (10–15%) that occurs in two subtypes – generalized and specific. It is a disorder that occurs during the adolescence and reflects negatively to the quality of life of an individual. Neurobiological basis of this disorder has not been explored yet. The disorder is frequently burdened with comorbidity with other anxiety disorders, depression and substance-related disorders. Only cognitive-behavioral techniques are desirable in the psychotherapeutic treatment of the disorder and the best results are achieved in combination with pharmacotherapy. The medicaments of choice in the treatment of social anxiety disorder are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Anxiolytics should be used only as a supplementary in the acute phase. Treatment of social anxiety disorder should last at least 3 months up to one year.