Publisher Summary Neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases adversely affect a significant proportion of the world's population. Few effective treatments are available to correct or ameliorate these serious conditions. Drugs that are available typically provide only modest improvement in those patients who show any positive response. This chapter summarizes recent developments that suggest new approaches for the treatment of brain deficit disorders. The goal of these novel therapeutic strategies is to move beyond superficial treatment of symptoms by addressing fundamental deficits in neuronal function and survival. The chapter focuses on schizophrenia because the brain defects in this disease are representative of other neurodevelopmental disorders that are less well understood. Potential therapeutic targets are discussed and a plan is outlined in the chapter for discovering new drugs that provide neuro-enhancement—that is, that enhance neurite outgrowth (function), optimize energy metabolism, and promote neuronal survival.