Publisher Summary Electron spin resonance (henceforth ESR) dating was first applied by M. Ikeya who dated a speleothem from Akiyoshi Cave, Japan. Since then, a wide range of materials were dated in applications in geology, geography and archaeology. This chapter gives a brief introduction into geochronology, explain the basis for ESR dating, and illustrate the specific strength of ESR dating in range of applications. ESR has made a particular impact through the dating of tooth enamel from archaeological sites and human fossils documenting the emergence of modern humans in Israel at about 100,000 years ago and their arrival in Australia at about 60,000 years ago. In Earth Sciences, ESR can be used to assess cooling and denudation rates. These new applications allow the investigation of a wide range of subjects relating to palaeothermometry as well as recent geodynamics.