Abstract The induction of the respiratory burst in human neutrophils by combinations of fMLP and either PAF or LTB4 was studied. Pretreatment with PAF (0.0001 to 10 μM), which by itself did not elicit the burst, greatly enhanced the rate and extent of fMLP-induced superoxide production. A synergism of a different kind was observed with the reversed stimulus sequence: Pretreatment with fMLP made the neutrophils capable to respond to PAF with superoxide production. A moderate enhancement of the fMLP response was also obtained following pretreatment with LTB4. The response of the cells to LTB4, however, was not influenced by fMLP, and no synergism was observed between the two neutrophil products PAF and LTB4. The results of this study demonstrate a marked synergism between fMLP and PAF and suggest that PAF may function as an amplifier of the respiratory burst response of stimulated neutrophils.