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Dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC)—A new technique for liposome preparation

Journal of Controlled Release
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2007.09.010
  • Liposome
  • Dual Asymmetric Centrifuge
  • Vesicular Phospholipid Gel
  • Preparation
  • Sterility
  • Bedside Preparation


Abstract This is the first report on the use of a “dual asymmetric centrifuge (DAC)” for preparing liposomes. DAC differs from conventional centrifugation by an additional rotation of the sample around its own vertical axis: While the conventional centrifugation constantly pushes the sample material outwards, this additional rotation constantly forces the sample material towards the center of the centrifuge. This unique combination of two contra rotating movements results in shear forces and thus, in efficient homogenization. We demonstrated that it is possible to prepare liposomes by DAC, by homogenizing a rather concentrated blend of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (55:45 mol%) and 0.9% NaCl-solution, which results in a viscous vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG). The resulting VPG can subsequently be diluted to a conventional liposome dispersion. Since DAC is intended to make sterile preparations of liposomes, or to entrap toxic/radioactive compounds, the process was performed within a sealed vial. It could be shown that the DAC speed, the lipid concentration, the homogenization time and the addition of a mixing aid (glass beads) are all critical for the size of the liposomes. Optimized conditions resulted in liposomes of 60 ± 5 nm and a trapping efficacy of 56 ± 3.3% for the model compound calcein.

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