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A regional multimodulus algorithm for blind equalization of QAM signals: Introduction and steady-state analysis

Authors
Journal
Signal Processing
0165-1684
Publisher
Elsevier
Volume
92
Issue
11
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2012.04.010
Keywords
  • Adaptive Signal Processing
  • Blind Equalizers
  • Gradient Methods
  • Numerical Stability
  • Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
  • Tracking Analysis
Disciplines
  • Computer Science

Abstract

Abstract It is well known that constant-modulus-based algorithms present a large mean-square error for high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals, which may damage the switching to decision-directed-based algorithms. In this paper, we introduce a regional multimodulus algorithm for blind equalization of QAM signals that performs similar to the supervised normalized least-mean-squares (NLMS) algorithm, independently of the QAM order. We find a theoretical relation between the coefficient vector of the proposed algorithm and the Wiener solution and also provide theoretical models for the steady-state excess mean-square error in a nonstationary environment. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with strategies to speed up its convergence and to avoid divergence can bypass the switching mechanism between the blind mode and the decision-directed mode.

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