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Is the reduction of myocardial infarct size by dietary fish oil the result of altered platelet function?

Authors
Journal
American Heart Journal
0002-8703
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
127
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/0002-8703(94)90540-1
Keywords
  • Clinical Investigations

Abstract

Abstract Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet containing 12% fish oil (18% eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 12% docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]), for 1 week (group I, n = 9) or 8 weeks (group III, n = 42) and controls (group II, n = 8; group IV, n = 36, respectively) were subjected to 35 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Compared to the controls, infarct size was significantly reduced in group III (15% ± 2%, n = 42 vs 34% ± 4%, n = 36; p < 0.001; infarct mass/risk area ×100%), but no change in group I (39% ± 5%, n = 9 vs 35% ± 5%, n = 8; p = not significant). Bleeding time was prolonged in group III (290 ± 73 sec) compared to group IV (99 ± 10 sec, p = 0.015). ω-3 fatty acid (EPA and DHA) levels in platelets were significantly higher in the rats fed 8 weeks of fish oil (group III) compared to the controls (group IV) and the rats fed 8 weeks of fish oil and then a regular diet until bleeding time normalized (group V) (7.2% ± 0.6% vs 1.2% ± 0.2% and 4.9% ± 0.5%; 3.8% ± 0.7% vs 1.8% ± 0.3% and 2.8% ± 0.6%, p < 0.001 and 0.05, respectively). These data indicate that long-term (8 weeks) dietary fish oil supplementation significantly reduces infarct size; short-term (1 week) does not. This reduction of infarct size appears to correlate with altered platelet function and EPA and DHA levels in platelets.

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