Radioautographic DNA labeling and rosetting techniques were combined to study the development of surface IgM, Fc, and complement receptors (FcR, CR) on small lymphocyte populations in mouse bone marrow. [3H]thymidine was either infused continuously to label newly formed cells for periods up to 4 days, or injected daily, 21--35 days before use, to label a sample of long-lived cells. Bone marrow cells were incubated with sensitized sheep erythrocytes to detect surface IgM, FcR, and CR, respectively, and examined radioautographically after cytocentrifugation. During [3H]thymidine infusion, marrow small lymphocytes lacking surface markers were the first to show [3H]thymidine labeling. Most of these cells became labeled by 4 days (IgM--ve, 89%; FcR--ve, 92%; Cr--ve, 88%). Labeling of small lymphocytes bearing surface IgM, FcR, and Cr began after an initial lag and increased to high values by 4 days (IgM + ve, 73%; FcR + ve, 82%; CR + ve, 83%). Labeled IgM + ve small lymphocytes formed progressively larger rosettes as cell age increased. Some proliferating large lymphoid cells formed rosettes for IgM, FcR, and CR. Labeled long-lived small lymphocytes expressed surface IgM, FcR, and CR, the incidence of each receptor being uniformly high (38--43%) and the rosettes tending to be larger than those formed by newly formed lymphocytes. In double- surface marker studies, FcR and CR rosettes were formed by some IgM--ve small lymphocytes as well as IgM + ve cells in the marrow. After transfusion of marrow cells from donor mice infused with [3H]thymidine for 24 h, many labeled newly formed lymphocytes homed into the splenic red pulp of unlabeled syngeneic recipients. Subsequently, these cells showed a rapid increase in the incidence of rosettes for surface IgM, FcR, and CR, together with a progressive enlargement of each type of rosette. Although all the labeled small lymphocytes recovered from the spleen developed both surface IgM and FcR by 3 days, only approximately one-half developed CR. The results demonstrate that most of the small lymphocytes bearing FcR, CR, and surface IgM in mouse bone marrow are newly formed indigenous cells. Each receptor becomes detectable by rosetting soon after the small lymphocytes are first produced. The newly formed, marrow-derived small lymphocytes are able to continue their development of surface IgM, FcR, and CR after migrating into the spleen, consistent with a maturation of primary B lymphocytes. In addition, the data indicate the genesis in mouse marrow of a non-B lineage of lymphocytes (notably, IgM--ve FcR + ve cells.). A minority of small lymphocytes bearing IgM, FcR, and CR in mouse marrow are long- lived cells, presumptive recirculating immigrants, differing in receptor status from the newly formed cells. The results are discussed with regard to the heterogeneity of marrow lymphocytes and proposed models of primary B lymphocyte and null lymphocyte production.