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Spectrum of severe infections in an Asian renal transplant population

Authors
Journal
Transplantation Proceedings
0041-1345
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
36
Issue
7
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2004.08.121
Disciplines
  • Medicine

Abstract

Abstract Infections in renal transplant recipients (RTX) account for 26% of hospitalization days annually and 40% of overall mortalities. A retrospective study of infections requiring hospitalization occurring among 725 Asian RTX in 2002 was performed. Results Serious infections requiring at least one hospitalization occurred in 9.2% of RTX ( n = 67). Multiple pathogens affected 28.4% of patients, resulting in 118 infectious episodes during 93 hospitalizations. Mean age of affected patients was 48 years and female to male ratio was 2:1. Forty-one (61.2%) had impaired renal function (serum creatinine >141 μmol/L). Mean duration of hospitalization per patient was 17 days and the in-patient mortality rate was 17.9% eighty-one (87%) hospitalizations were for late infections (>6 months posttransplant). Cyclosporine (CsA) with prednisolone with or without azathioprine was the immunosuppressant in 62.7% ( n = 42) of RTX but proportionally, infections were more frequent among RTX on other more potent immunosuppressants ( n = 21; 7.4% CsA-based vs. 19.3%, potent, P < .05). Bacterial, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii infections comprised 64.4%, 20.3%, 5.9%, and 4.2% respectively. Urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and bacterial septicemia (35.52%, 31.6%, and 11.8%, respectively) were the major presentations. E. coli, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Candida were the most common pathogens. Notably, 13 out of 18 (72.2%) viral CMV infections were co- infections, occurring together with bacterial infections. Conclusions Late infections with the use of potent immunosuppressives and concurrent CMV reactivation are a major cause of morbidity. Longer antibacterial prophylaxis and closer monitoring for CMV infections may help reduce morbidity.

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