The first translation of Mill’s paper Podređenost žena (1869) has been recently published in Croatia. This work marks a break with the patriarchal paradigm within the liberal tradition. By tying the realization of liberal ideas of freedom and individualism to the elimination of inequality between the sexes, Mill gave back to liberalism its original critical and emancipatory character. Using this as the starting point, the article deals with the understanding of women’s rights within the intellecto-political tradition Mill belonged to, sheds some new light on the nature and the meaning of his relationship with Harriet Taylor, and reconstructs Mill’s theory on the equality of women in the context of his entire oeuvre. In the fourth and final part the author looks into the relevance of Mill’s ideas and points to certain intricacies and contradictions in his views.