Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness. One third of Duchenne patients suffer a moderate to severe, nonprogressive form of mental retardation. Mutations in the DMD gene are thought to be responsible, with the shorter isoforms of dystrophin implicated in its molecular brain pathogenesis. It is becoming clear that region-specific variations in dystrophin isoforms delegate the composition of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in brain, and hence, the function of the specific membrane assembly. Here we summarize the recent advances in the understanding of brain dystrophin, dystrophin-related proteins and dystrophin-associated proteins.