Publisher Summary The UK has a large number of industries and sites on which radioactive materials are processed or used. In addition to commercial power reactors, there are supporting fuel fabrication and processing plants, waste disposal sites, and research facilities. In the UK, a site (or part of a site) can only be delicensed if the regulator is satisfied that there is “no danger” from ionizing radiations from anything on the site or that part of the site to be delicensed. The term “no danger” is not defined in legislation. In the UK, the regulatory framework for managing chemically contaminated land on a site that is also potentially contaminated with radioactivity falls within the scope of the (chemically) contaminated Land Regulations (Part IIA, Section 57 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990). Local Authorities have a duty to identify potentially contaminated land in their areas. If a nuclear licensed site (or one that has a history of using radioactive substances) could also potentially contain chemical contamination that could cause harm, the Local Authority will designate it as a Special Site and pass on regulatory responsibility to the relevant Environmental Agency. Land remediation in the UK has traditionally relied on simple landfill disposal. The SAFEGROUNDS project was established by a number of interested organizations in the UK to prepare best practice guidance about the management of contaminated land on nuclear licensed and defence sites.