Although patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes exhibit normal intelligence, they frequently display neuropsychologic abnormalities. Thirty-five patients with rolandic epilepsy were included in this study. They were divided into three subgroups. Group I comprised patients with rolandic focus who were not receiving treatment. Group II comprised patients with rolandic focus who were receiving treatment. Group III comprised patients who demonstrated improved foci and were not receiving treatment. The control group comprised 16 children who were similar to patients in terms of age, sex, and sociocultural level. All children underwent standardized neuropsychologic testing, including the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised subtests, Bender Gestalt Test, Stroop Test, Visual Aural Digit Span, Reading and Writing Performance, and Dichotic Listening Test. Patients exhibited significantly impaired visuomotor and reading ability and attention to verbal stimuli compared with control subjects. Reading disability persisted in patients in remission from seizures and epileptic discharges. Contrary to the presumed benign nature of rolandic epilepsy, this disorder may cause learning disabilities. Therefore, patients must be followed longitudinally to identify any learning problems.