The results of a three-year study of the implications of China's accession to the WTO for its agricultural sector and policy options to maximise the benefits of the trade reforms are reported. The most important message from the study is that macro-economic and other non-agriculture specific policies can do much to improve the outcome for rural households and thereby improve food security. These policies include the promotion of urban development in inland areas and gradual reform of monetary policy. However, agricultural policies need further reform, including abandoning of price support and regional self-sufficiency policies, reform of monopolistic agricultural marketing and distribution activities, and reform of the state grain storage system. Hopefully, WTO membership will assist implementation of these reforms.